What is Computer : Computer is an electronic device that is designed to work with Information. The term computer is derived from the Latin term ‘computare‘, this means to calculate or programmable machine. Or you can say computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or data. Computer can not do anything without a Program. It represents the decimal numbers through a string of binary digits. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. You may already know that you can use a computer to type documents, send email, play games, and browse the Web. You can also use it to edit or create spreadsheets, presentations, and even videos.
Charles Babbage is called the Father of the computer. The First mechanical computer designed by Charles Babbage was called Analytical Engine. It uses read-only memory in the form of punch cards.
Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical and non-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.
The computer system essentially comprises three important parts:
- Input device,
- Central processing unit (CPU) and
- Output device.
The CPU itself is made of three components namely,
- Arithmetic logic unit (ALU),
- Memory unit and
- Control unit.
On broad basis, a computer performs the following tasks:
- Input: Sending the data and command to the computer is known as input.
- Processing: Work done by the computer with the help of processing hardware and software to produce results is known as processing.
- Output: The result displayed by the computer is known as output.
- Storage:A place to save result inside or outside the computer is known as storage.
Anatomy of Computers
The following are the parts of a desktop computer:
- Power Supply : When you plug your power cable into your computer, you are actually plugging into a socket in the power supply unit that has been fitted inside your case. This component is responsible for converting the 240 volt AC mains power to low voltage DC power needed by computer components. The power supply generates +3.3V, +5V, +12V, -5V. These voltages must be constant, right up to the maximum current your system will draw under load.
- Monitor: Commonly known as a “screen,” the monitor gives you a visual display of what your computer is up to. Monitor displays are divided into pixels. The higher the pixel count, the higher the “resolution.” Resolutions are measured in Rows x Columns. Common resolution settings are 640 x 480, 800 x 600, 1024 x 768, 1280 x 1024, etc.
- Motherboard: The main board I which is sometimes called a motherboard. This is usually the largest circuit-board in the computer, and every other component in the computer connects to it.
- Central Processing Unit (CPU) : The Central Processing Unit (CPU)is usually called either a CPU or just a Processor. The CPU is the brain of the system. It executes all the program code from the operating system and the applications the user runs and processing of data. It sends CPU commands to direct the actions of all the other components in the computer.
- Main Memory or Random Access Memory (RAM) : RAM, which stands for Random Access Memory, is the short term memory that the computer uses to keep track of what it’s doing. If the computer loses power, anything stored in RAM will be lost.
- Storage Device: Computer storage device is any type of hardware that stores data. The most common type of storage device, which nearly all computers have, is a hard drive.
Input and Output Devices:
Input Devices: Input device is a hardware device that sends information to the computer.
- Digital Camera
- Web Cam
Output Devices: Any peripheral that receives and/or displays output from a computer.
Below are some examples of different types of output devices commonly used in computer